The menopausal hot flush: symptom reports and concomitant physiological changes. J Behav Med ; Freedman RR. Hot flashes revisited. Kronenberg F. Hot flashes: Phenomenology, quality of life, and search for treatment options.
Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer incidence
Exp Gerontol. Campbell S, Whitehead M. Oestrogen therapy and the menopause syndrome.
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What is menopause?
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Is severity of premenstrual symptoms related to illness in the climacteric.
Hormone Replacement in Women with a History of Breast Cancer
Roca CA. Estrogen and Mood in Perimenopausal Women. Metrics details. Propensity score matching PSM was used to control selection bias, and factors affecting education, family income, and age of menopause were used as covariates in PSM. A chi-square test was used to confirm the bivariate relationship between the variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounders age, education, family income, body mass index, age of menopause, alcohol, smoking, dental clinic visits in the past one year, use of oral care products and frequency of tooth brushing per day.
The results of this study supported that it is important that hormone therapy be actively considered in the policy towards postmenopausal women. Especially, health programs such as hormone replacement therapy, non-smoking, and use of oral care products are needed for women who undergo premature menopause. The average menopausal age of women in Korea is Considering that the life expectancy of Korean women was Menopause is a phenomenon that occurs naturally with aging, but postmenopausal women face increased risk of various diseases, including osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases [ 5 ].
Postmenopausal women experience a rapid decrease in bone mineral density BMD due to hormone estrogen deficiency [ 6 ]. Meanwhile, Osteoporosis and periodontal diseases are indicative of excessive bone resorption, as both diseases have host-dependent, multifactorial causes and are regulated by local and systemic cytokines, such as IL-1 and 6, and various hormones [ 7 ]. When the periodontal status of menopausal women with osteoporosis was investigated, more severe periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss was found compared to those in the same age group who did not have osteoporosis [ 8 ].
Hormone Replacement Therapy for Menopausal Symptoms
In particular, menopause-related hormonal changes are known to affect the oral environment, due to changes in sex hormones, such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which have an impact on the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines that are involved in bone resorption [ 9 ]. Moreover, estrogen receptors in the oral mucosa react sensitively to changes in hormone levels, which leads to increased inflammation in the periodontal tissues [ 10 ]. HRT plays an important role in preventing osteoporosis by reducing postmenopausal bone mass loss [ 12 ].
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- Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer incidence -- ScienceDaily;
- Hormone Replacement Therapy for Menopausal Symptoms.
Menopausal women who received estrogen therapy showed a significantly increased density in their lumbar spine and femur, as compared to the control group; while, similar results were found in the alveolar bone as well [ 13 ]. Postmenopausal HRT is widely recognized to prevent osteoporosis and improve menopause-related diseases [ 14 ]. Since periodontal diseases are also affected by the state of the alveolar bone, various studies have attempted to demonstrate the association between HRT and periodontal disease [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ].
However, the effects of HRT varied according to menopausal age and the postmenopausal period, while also showing conflicting results according to the extent of periodontal disease progression [ 15 , 16 ].
In other words, HRT may have a positive effect on alveolar bone density, but it was reported to have no relationship with the attachment level of periodontal tissues and periodontal pocket depth [ 17 , 18 , 19 ].