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The menopausal hot flush: symptom reports and concomitant physiological changes. J Behav Med ; Freedman RR. Hot flashes revisited. Kronenberg F. Hot flashes: Phenomenology, quality of life, and search for treatment options.

Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer incidence

Exp Gerontol. Campbell S, Whitehead M. Oestrogen therapy and the menopause syndrome.

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Clin Obstet Gynaecol. The effect of transdermal estradiol on hormone and metabolic dynamics over a six-week period. Obstet Gynecol ; Hot flushes, menstrual status, and hormone levels in a population-based sample of midlife women. The age of menopause in the Netherlands. The statistical analysis of a survey. Int J Fertil ; Baram DA. Physiology and symptoms of menopause.

A clinician's guide to menopause. Woods NF. Menopause, models, medicine and midlife. Bart PB, Grossman M. The Woman Patient. New York: Plenum; Glenn ND. Psychological wellbeing in the post-parental stage: some evidence from national surveys. J Marital Fam Ther ; Lock M. Ambiguities of aging: Japanese experience and perceptions of menopause. Cult Med Psychiatry ; Menopause in cultural context. Exp Gerontol ; Association of diet and other lifestyle with onset of menopause in Japanese women.

Characteristics of menopausal women seeking assistance. Am J Obstet Gynecol ; Br J Psychiatry ; : Novaes C, Almeida OP. Premenstrual syndrome and psychiatric morbidity at the menopause. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; The treatment-seeking woman at menopause. A longitudinal analysis of women's attitudes toward the menopause: results from the Massachusetts Women's Health Study. Depressive symptoms in the perimenopause: prevalence, assessment, and guidelines for treatment. Harv Rev Psychiatry ; Study of symptoms in middle life with special reference to the menopause.

Br Med J ; Mental Health among perimenopausal women attending a menopause clinic: possible association with premenstrual syndrome?

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The Manitoba Project: a re-examination of the link between menopause and depression.


Prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms in older premenopausal women: the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; Menopause-related affective disorders: a justification for further study. Am J Psychiatry ; 7 Arpels JC.


The female brain hypoestrogenic continuum from the premenstrual syndrome to menopause. A hypothesis and review of supporting data.

What is menopause?

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Is severity of premenstrual symptoms related to illness in the climacteric.

Hormone Replacement in Women with a History of Breast Cancer

Roca CA. Estrogen and Mood in Perimenopausal Women. Metrics details. Propensity score matching PSM was used to control selection bias, and factors affecting education, family income, and age of menopause were used as covariates in PSM. A chi-square test was used to confirm the bivariate relationship between the variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounders age, education, family income, body mass index, age of menopause, alcohol, smoking, dental clinic visits in the past one year, use of oral care products and frequency of tooth brushing per day.

The results of this study supported that it is important that hormone therapy be actively considered in the policy towards postmenopausal women. Especially, health programs such as hormone replacement therapy, non-smoking, and use of oral care products are needed for women who undergo premature menopause. The average menopausal age of women in Korea is Considering that the life expectancy of Korean women was Menopause is a phenomenon that occurs naturally with aging, but postmenopausal women face increased risk of various diseases, including osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases [ 5 ].

Postmenopausal women experience a rapid decrease in bone mineral density BMD due to hormone estrogen deficiency [ 6 ]. Meanwhile, Osteoporosis and periodontal diseases are indicative of excessive bone resorption, as both diseases have host-dependent, multifactorial causes and are regulated by local and systemic cytokines, such as IL-1 and 6, and various hormones [ 7 ]. When the periodontal status of menopausal women with osteoporosis was investigated, more severe periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss was found compared to those in the same age group who did not have osteoporosis [ 8 ].

Hormone Replacement Therapy for Menopausal Symptoms

In particular, menopause-related hormonal changes are known to affect the oral environment, due to changes in sex hormones, such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which have an impact on the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines that are involved in bone resorption [ 9 ]. Moreover, estrogen receptors in the oral mucosa react sensitively to changes in hormone levels, which leads to increased inflammation in the periodontal tissues [ 10 ]. HRT plays an important role in preventing osteoporosis by reducing postmenopausal bone mass loss [ 12 ].

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  • Hormone Replacement Therapy for Menopausal Symptoms.
  • Menopausal women who received estrogen therapy showed a significantly increased density in their lumbar spine and femur, as compared to the control group; while, similar results were found in the alveolar bone as well [ 13 ]. Postmenopausal HRT is widely recognized to prevent osteoporosis and improve menopause-related diseases [ 14 ]. Since periodontal diseases are also affected by the state of the alveolar bone, various studies have attempted to demonstrate the association between HRT and periodontal disease [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ].

    However, the effects of HRT varied according to menopausal age and the postmenopausal period, while also showing conflicting results according to the extent of periodontal disease progression [ 15 , 16 ].

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    • In other words, HRT may have a positive effect on alveolar bone density, but it was reported to have no relationship with the attachment level of periodontal tissues and periodontal pocket depth [ 17 , 18 , 19 ].