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After the age of 60 it is more difficult for us to recall, but our ability to recognize is still mostly intact.

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To recall something is to recover information without being given any clues. So, without prompting, an elderly person would know that your birthday is in July. To recognize is to recover information when given clues. For example, if you were to say, "My birthday is coming up!

After the age of 60 time-based tasks become difficult. For example, it may be difficult for someone over the age of 60 to follow a weekly routine, such as going to physical therapy twice a week for their pm appointment. Role of culture in cognitive development The culture we grow up in lays a platform for social relationships to form, as well as serves as an environment to observe others' social interactions. The things we learn from what we observe in our environment shapes how we behave and think.

Some people think in images, and some think in words. Studies have found that different languages lead to different ways of thinking and reasoning. Nurture" - our cognitive development is a complicated interaction between our genetic predispositions to certain abilities and disabilities nature and our environment nurture. Biological factors that affect cognition Processes that occur in the frontal lobe include organization and planning. The hippocampus, is responsible for forming new memories. The amygdala and the rest of the limbic system is also involved with cognition.

Its job is to arouse the necessary emotions, causing alertness and motivation necessary to complete tasks. Problem solving and decision making Types of problem solving Trial and error - the process by which we experiment using various different approaches until we find one that is effective. Algorithm - the process of following a set of particular rules or calculations, often involving a computer, to come up with the correct answer.

Heuristics - the process of using cognitive shortcuts, formed by someone's previous experiences. A "rule of thumb" is an example of a heuristic. Barriers to effective problem solving Confirmation bias: a tendency to look for information that supports and agrees with your idea, instead of seeking out new information that may disprove or go against it.

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Fixation: the failure to see an issue from a new perspective. Sometimes fixation occurs because of a mental set. A mental set is the inclination to fixate on answers that have been successful in the past, even though they may be irrelevant or inappropriate for solving the current problem. Function fixedness is a tendency to observe the functions of things objects as static and unchanging.

For example, one may think the only way to get to work is by driving, when other methods exist such as biking or public transportation.

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Approaches to problem solving: a combination of trial and error, algorithmic, and heuristics. Heuristics and biases e. Representative heuristic - we have a tendency to make judgments based on the probability of something happening based on our typical idea of a particular event. For example, we believe we will receive a cake rather than a salad when it is our birthday.

This is because cakes are typically more representative of a birthday than a salad. Availability heuristic- tendency to believe that something is more common or more likely to happen just because it is more readily obtainable in our memory.


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For example, if everyone in your household has the flu, and someone at work coughs, you may jump to the conclusion that they, too, have the flu. Belief bias is the tendency to cast judgment on issues using what someone believes about their conclusion, regardless of the logic that was used to support the argument. Belief perseverance is the tendency for us to hold on to our pre-existing beliefs, despite being presented with evidence that contradicts our beliefs. Another way that information can be skewed is by how it is "framed".

This is how the information is presented ie. Linguistic Intelligence- the ability to write, read, and speak. Intrapersonal Intelligence- the ability to have insight; to understand one's inner self. Interpersonal Intelligence- the ability to understand and associate with other people. Mathematical Intelligence- the ability to perform in numbers math. Spatial Intelligence- the ability to see and process the world space that surrounds you. Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence- the ability to perform athletically dance, sports, manual labor, etc.

General intelligence also referred to as the "G factor" is the type of intelligence that underlies all types of intelligence. It is arguable whether this factor is quantifiable. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence -Developed by Robert Sternberg, 3 components Experiential intelligence- also known as creative intelligence the ability to familiarize oneself with new circumstances and form new concepts. For example: If you move to a foreign country and you are able to learn the new language, you are exhibiting experiential intelligence. Componential intelligence- also known as analytical intelligence the traditional idea of intelligence.

Includes ability to logically reason and think abstractly. Also includes the ability to communicate and think mathematically.

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This type of intelligence can be evaluated by standard tests of intelligence e. IQ tests. Contextual intelligence- also known as practical intelligence, or "street smarts" this is the ability to apply one's knowledge base to the world around them. Example: You have learned that UV rays from the sun can give you skin cancer, so when the sunlight becomes intense, you move to sit in the shade.

Primary Mental Abilities- Belief is that we are born with seven primary mental abilities: Reasoning Numerical ability Associative Memory Spatial visualization Word fluency Perceptual speed Verbal comprehension Savant Syndrome is rare, and is characterized by extreme talent in one particular area, such as music, but rather poor cognitive functioning in most other fields.

This condition often involves a form of mental retardation, such as autism. Influence of heredity and environment on intelligence Both heredity and the environment play large roles with regards to one's intellectual capabilities. In addition to genetics, life experiences can also affect one's intelligence scores. Environmental hardships especially during development can negatively affect one's cognitive abilities e.

Variations in intellectual ability Intelligence is hard to measure; many of the tests administered to quantify intelligence have built-in bias, and have unavoidable confounding factors. For example, sometimes racial groups score differently from each other not because of their race, but because of different incomes and availability to different qualities of education.

IQ Scores: The average score on an intelligence test is The lowest end of the spectrum falls below 70 mark.

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At the high of the scale, there are people who score higher than Consciousness States of consciousness: consciousness is defined as the state of being awake and able to process what is happening internally and externally Alertness Alertness and arousal refer to our ability to pay attention to events that are occurring around us. Drugs, poisons, and head injuries can hinder our ability to be aware.

Alertness depends on our hour cycle. The reticular formation also referred to as reticular activating system, RAS structures of our brainstem control levels of arousal. Sleep Polysomnography PSG is a test used to test measure physiological processes during sleep. The test includes a series of smaller tests, including: Electrooculogram EOG - measures movements of the eyes during sleep. Electroencephalogram EEG - measures the electrical impulses of the brain, these high frequencies and low amplitudes are known as alpha waves collectively referred to as neural synchrony.

Electromyogram EMG - measures musculoskeletal movements. Stages of sleep Stage 1- This stage of sleep has mainly theta waves that are of low to moderate frequency Hertz. During this stage of non-REM rapid eye movement stage of sleep there are slow eye movements. Stage 2 — There is a decrease in heart rate, respiration, and body temperature. During stage 2 the EEG measures moderate brainwave activity.