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From about this time we can talk about an independent Il-khanid state, within the context of the breakup of the united Mongol empire. Eventually the Il-khanid forces were routed, and an uneasy frontier was established along the Kur river. In general, intermittent war with the Golden Horde, or the threat of it, plagued the Il-khanids and was an important factor contributing to their inability to pursue the war against the Mamluk sultans, allies of the khans of the Golden Horde. In the realm of foreign relations, perhaps the most important development was the war with the Chaghatayid Khan Baraq.

The front with the Golden Horde was also generally quiet, which may have led in the end to the revival of war with the Mamluks. In order to deal better with the Mamluks, Abaqa dispatched four embassies to the West calling for a joint campaign against the common enemy. There had been, however, an attempt to coordinate strategies with Prince Edward of England, who arrived in Acre in , resulting in a fairly large Mongol raid to the north of Syria.

If nothing else, his abandonment of traditional Mongol religion may well have served as a rallying cry for political and other opposition. It appears that the Mongol ruling class in Persia was not yet ready to accept wholesale conversion to Islam, either among themselves or among the masses of Mongol troops. On the Central Asian front there were also problems; in early there had been an attack from Qaidu and his Chaghatayid supporters. He had earlier fled to Central Asia, and now returned with the support of Qaidu. The Mamluks, however, were not idle and sent raiders across the frontier in , , and The story is recounted by Bar Hebraeus tr.

Budge, p. Nothing came of this project, if indeed it ever existed. He showed perhaps less tolerance for Islam than did other pagan Il-khans. The new Il-khan r. This was followed by an exchange of truculent letters between the two rulers, but the Mamluk sultan did not live long enough to attempt to carry out his threat to reconquer Baghdad.

The Il-khan, in any event, did not initiate any major offensives into Syria. Likewise, the Central Asian and Caucasian fronts were also relatively quiet. This was a complete failure and contributed to the economic crisis fueled by the large-scale death of livestock the so-called jut , mismanagement, and unbridled spending by the court. Nowruz, with whom he had been reconciled, was instrumental in bringing about this conversion, as well as the successful struggle with Baidu. In spite of the patronage of Muslim building and institutions, and the increasing employment of Islamic titles and other forms of legitimization, there is a continued use of Mongol forms of rule and ideology, as well as ongoing connections, perhaps more attenuated than previously, with the Great Khan in the East.


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We cannot, therefore, speak of a break from Mongol tradition, but a transition to other, more Islamic and perhaps Iranian, forms of government and symbolism. He and his successors continued purging real and imagined royal conspirators, thereby dangerously reducing the pool of potential dynasts in the long run.

In spite of the religious change, there was a remarkable continuity of foreign policy. The conversion of the ruler brought no relaxation of relations with the Mamluks—quite the opposite. The victory led to a day Mongol occupation of Damascus, but the Mongols withdrew of their own accord, perhaps due to troubles on other frontiers and possibly due to the projected logistical difficulties of maintaining a cavalry army and its numerous mounts in Syria over the summer. This campaign was curtailed while still in north Syria, when unusually wet and cold weather was encountered. This was the last of the great Mongol invasions across the Euphrates, although warfare along the frontier was to continue for more than a decade.

The truculent nature of these letters from both sides, laced with Islamic motifs and each disparaging the religiousness of the other, shows that the possibility of Mamluk-Il-khanid peace was still far in the future. Mostaert and F. As in earlier cases, nothing came of these missions, although the Mongol victory of and the subsequent occupation of Syria had awakened hopes in the West for a return of Jerusalem to the Christians.

Again, little of substance occurred except for some raiding along the Syrian coast see S. This claim was dismissed out of hand, but there is no record of actual hostilities breaking out on this front during this reign. Besides being a monument to the wide intellectual horizons occasioned by the period of Mongol rule, it is also a major and according to many scholars the most important source for the history of the Mongols in general and the Il-khanids in particular.

It is not without its biases, particularly towards the house of Toluy q. This subject will be discussed in more detail below. Possessing wide intellectual horizons, he was in many respects the greatest of the Il-khans. Even though there was a call for concerted action against the Mamluks, there is also perhaps a veiled threat towards the Franks if they did not join the campaign D.

He was probably encouraged by Mamluk deserters who arrived in the summer of under Qarasunqur, former governor of Aleppo. This campaign, in spite of the large Mongol forces that set out, was a fiasco. After a siege lasting several weeks, during which the Mongols suffered from disease and other problems, the Mongols withdrew at the end of January Although there would be further fighting along the border in the following years, this was the final attempt of the Il-khans to invade Syria in force.

IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY – Encyclopaedia Iranica

The latter maintained this position until his natural death in , a unique occurrence in the annals of the Il-khanate. Perhaps more significant was a revolt of Mongol notables led by Irenjin. An important development in the realm of foreign relations was the end of hostilities with the Mamluks.


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  • This led to negotiations that in turn resulted in the signing of a peace treaty in Thus ended the sixty-odd year war with the chief enemy, certainly the main non-Mongol one, of the Il-khans. The following years were relatively tranquil. Institutional , social , and cultural aspects of Il-khanid rule. The most important institution in all the Mongol states, including the Il-khanate, was the army, the basis of conquest and power.

    All Mongol grandees and princes were senior officers, and the Il-khan, even at the end of the dynasty, would often go out at the head of his troops on campaign. Troops went on campaign with a string of ponies that they would ride in turn, both on long marches and during battle. The principal tactics were the massed cavalry charge, accompanied by a barrage of arrows, and attempts to encircle the enemy. If the enemy were broken, then the Mongols would close in; if it maintained its position, then the Mongols would launch successive attacks until their objective was achieved.

    From the beginning, the Mongols were aware of the importance of siege warfare. Allsen, , p. In any event, there is no evidence of them in the war against the Mamluks. Early on, the Mongols employed auxiliary troops from local rulers, be they Muslims Saljuqs from Rum, Mosul, etc. In the former case, many of these soldiers were probably mamluk-type troops, i. In any event, the evidence points to the continuation into the fourteenth century of traditional Mongol tactics, using massed light cavalry. These were, in theory, composed of 10, men, although in reality they probably were undermanned.

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    Poets, Sufis, and Qalandars 9. Return of a King. Show More Show Less. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best Selling in Nonfiction See all. Burn after Writing by Sharon Jones , Paperback 2.

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    Save on Nonfiction Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days. Open Borders Inc. You may also like. History Nonfiction Books in Persian. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. Growing recent interest in the Mongol Empire and its Eurasian conquests has led to an increase in scholarship on the Mongols. After the Mongol attacks on Eastern Europe — specifically Russia, Poland, Hungary, and the Balkans — in the s—s, Europeans were petrified of the terrifying and unfamiliar invaders.

    This essay briefly summarizes recent major works on medieval European and Mongol relations in the areas of diplomacy, mission, art, and material culture. The author encourages scholars on the Mongol Empire to collaborate across disciplines in an attempt to counteract the difficult multilingual nature of sources on the Mongol Empire. Volume 10 , Issue The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

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