Heidegger's account of Dasein passes through a dissection of the experiences of Angst and mortality, and then through an analysis of the structure of "care" as such. From there he raises the problem of "authenticity," that is, the potentiality or otherwise for mortal Dasein to exist fully enough that it might actually understand being.
Heidegger is clear throughout the book that nothing makes certain that Dasein is capable of this understanding. Finally, this question of the authenticity of individual Dasein cannot be separated from the "historicality" of Dasein.
On the one hand, Dasein , as mortal, is "stretched along" between birth and death, and thrown into its world, that is, thrown into its possibilities , possibilities which Dasein is charged with the task of assuming. On the other hand, Dasein's access to this world and these possibilities is always via a history and a tradition—this is the question of "world historicality," and among its consequences is Heidegger's argument that Dasein's potential for authenticity lies in the possibility of choosing a "hero. Thus, more generally, the outcome of the progression of Heidegger's argument is the thought that the being of Dasein is time.
- History of the Concept of Time: Prolegomena (Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy).
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Nevertheless, Heidegger concludes his work with a set of enigmatic questions foreshadowing the necessity of a destruction that is, a transformation of the history of philosophy in relation to temporality—these were the questions to be taken up in the never completed continuation of his project:. The existential and ontological constitution of the totality of Dasein is grounded in temporality. Accordingly, a primordial mode of temporalizing of ecstatic temporality itself must make the ecstatic project of being in general possible. How is this mode of temporalizing of temporality to be interpreted?
Is there a way leading from primordial time to the meaning of being? Does time itself reveal itself as the horizon of being?
Although Heidegger describes his method in Being and Time as phenomenological, the question of its relation to the phenomenology of Husserl is complex. The fact that Heidegger believes that ontology includes an irreducible hermeneutic interpretative aspect, for example, might be thought to run counter to Husserl's claim that phenomenological description is capable of a form of scientific positivity.
On the other hand, however, several aspects of the approach and method of Being and Time seem to relate more directly to Husserl's work. The central Husserlian concept of the directedness of all thought— intentionality —for example, while scarcely mentioned in Being and Time , has been identified by some with Heidegger's central notion of Sorge cura , care or concern. Whereas a theoretical understanding of things grasps them according to "presence," for example, this may conceal that our first experience of a being may be in terms of its being "ready-to-hand.
Only a later understanding might come to contemplate a hammer as an object. The total understanding of being results from an explication of the implicit knowledge of being that inheres in Dasein. Philosophy thus becomes a form of interpretation, but since there is no external reference point outside being from which to begin this interpretation, the question becomes to know in which way to proceed with this interpretation.
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This is the problem of the "hermeneutic circle," and the necessity for the interpretation of the meaning of being to proceed in stages: this is why Heidegger's technique in Being and Time is sometimes referred to as hermeneutical phenomenology. As part of his ontological project, Heidegger undertakes a reinterpretation of previous Western philosophy.
He wants to explain why and how theoretical knowledge came to seem like the most fundamental relation to being. This explanation takes the form of a destructuring Destruktion of the philosophical tradition, an interpretative strategy that reveals the fundamental experience of being at the base of previous philosophies that had become entrenched and hidden within the theoretical attitude of the metaphysics of presence.
This use of the word Destruktion is meant to signify not a negative operation but rather a positive transformation or recovery. Being and Time is the major achievement of Heidegger's early career, but he produced other important works during this period:.
Although Heidegger did not complete the project outlined in Being and Time , later works explicitly addressed the themes and concepts of Being and Time. Most important among the works which do so are the following:. In response, Heidegger maintained that his thesis that the essence of being is time is the opposite of Hegel's view that being is the essence of time. Heidegger's work has been suggested as a possible influence on Herbert Marcuse 's Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity , though Marcuse later questioned the political implications of Heidegger's work.
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The publication of the English translation of the work by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson in ,  helped to shape the way in which Heidegger's work was discussed in English. Jean-Paul Sartre. Felix Guattari. Gilles Deleuze. Alfred Schutz. Aron Gurwitsch.follow link
History of the concept of time : prolegomena
Emmanuel Levinas. Immanuel Kant. Basic concepts by Martin Heidegger. Being and Truth by Martin Heidegger. Communicative praxis and the space of subjectivity by Calvin O. Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. Entries with PhilPapers records have links on their titles.
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History of the Concept of Time: Prolegomena - Martin Heidegger - Google книги
The original article and bibliography can be found here. The bibliography is divided into two sections; taken together, they provide a representative sample of existentialist writing. The first includes books that are cited in the body of the article.