You can also embed any imagery and videos here also. Delivery and Returns. Why Buy From Us. Here are 5 more great reasons to buy from us: so. Default Title - Sold Out. Add to Basket. Your recently viewed products. Added to cart! My Basket. Plato adapted this word to mean something along the lines of governance and associated it with government control, as governments steer society.
In the 20 th century, American mathematician and philosopher Norbert Wiener foresaw the rise of sophisticated robots, which would need artificial intelligence to control their actions. Weiner retained the connection between technological control and governance. It is interesting that cybersecurity gained attention when the useful term information security already existed for the same thing. There is no clear research establishing why this is so, but it is attributable to a combination of military influence, marketing hype and societal acceptance.
As digital technology became vital for business and governments, the military started preparing to defend national interests around this area. Because conventional military thinking is based on the defense and attack of some kind of space e. Hence, securing cyberspace became cybersecurity. In addition to many defense measures, cybersecurity also came with some offence measures as well.
The term cyber has found easy acceptance with the media and, through them, with society in general. While information security sounded formal and demanded a deeper understanding of technology aspects, cybersecurity connected well with science fiction and popular imagination, as it struck a chord with business leaders and industry experts in increasingly digital global commerce. It is no surprise then that the accepted semantics were quick to overflow into other areas e.
Having understood the origin of the term, it is essential to get an understanding of the term itself. There are quite a few close variations in the meaning and scope of cybersecurity, and there are some outliers:. It has spawned numerous words with cyber- prefixes, but try to avoid most of these coinages. When the combining form is used, follow the general rule for prefixes and do not use a hyphen: cyberattack, cyberbullying, cybercafe, cybersecurity. There are a few people in the research community who have held out against painting everything cyber, although their ranks are thinning due to the growing global acceptance of the term from governments, industries and the general public.
Gartner analysts suggest that many of the activities labelled cybersecurity are not only not new, but could also be dangerous practices that should not be followed. They suggest that executives need to question the use of cybersecurity budgets before making decisions on the subject. Gartner analysts recommend that enterprises engage in spending on core operational and procedural security rather than investing significant amounts of money in zero-day vulnerabilities and country watching, sinking huge budgets to deal with advanced threats.
Enterprises are advised to concentrate on core infrastructure security, application security and security processes. Security management is a function that is accompanied by expectations of high trust, and it can be bogged down by excessive emphasis on cybersecurity. There is some connection between this hype and the offensive element in the definition of cybersecurity. Thus, by dissociating the offensive element from the definition of cybersecurity, enterprises can avoid the associated hype as well. All enterprises need to understand their business; document critical information infrastructure; and deploy multilayered protection measures to provide a tiered set of preventive, detective and corrective controls, which define their information security and OT security framework.
In doing so, a risk-based approach is an absolute must. In this approach, residual risk, a risk mitigation road map and risk appetite should be clearly understood by security leadership and articulated to executive leadership. There is no room here for hype while developing this understanding, making recommendations for risk mitigation and taking executive decisions. While offensive measures are out of scope for enterprises, organisations in some critical sectors may need to establish partnerships with suitable government establishments to report cyberattacks, and the concerned government establishment may have the mandate for retaliatory or offensive measures.
Weiss; Definition: Cybersecurity , Gartner, 7 June , www. He is currently the leader of the IT consulting practice for the global management consulting firm Protiviti and is focused on providing customised solutions and services to clients to meet their business challenges in the cybersecurity, IT risk, governance and compliance domains. Prior to pursuing a consulting career, Rout spent most of his career as a practitioner in several industry sectors in the areas of technology strategy, business process management, risk management, information security architecture and operations, governance and compliance, strategic cost reduction, and talent transformation.
Annual Report. Press Room. Contact Us. How to Earn CPE. This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text. Sometimes called the syntax layer. Layer 5: The session layer This layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end.
Share this page
It deals with session and connection coordination. Layer 4: The transport layer This layer manages the end-to-end control for example, determining whether all packets have arrived and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 3: The network layer This layer handles the routing of the data sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level.
The network layer does routing and forwarding. Layer 2: The data-link layer This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bit-stuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management. Layer 1: The physical layer This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. Overload Hindrance of system operation by placing excess burden on the performance capabilities of a system component. Packet A piece of a message transmitted over a packet-switching network.
One of the key features of a packet is that it contains the destination address in addition to the data. In IP networks, packets are often called datagrams. Packet Switched Network A packet switched network is where individual packets each follow their own paths through the network from one endpoint to another. Partitions Major divisions of the total physical hard disk space. Password Authentication Protocol PAP Password Authentication Protocol is a simple, weak authentication mechanism where a user enters the password and it is then sent across the network, usually in the clear.
Password Cracking Password cracking is the process of attempting to guess passwords, given the password file information. Password Sniffing Passive wiretapping, usually on a local area network, to gain knowledge of passwords. Patch A patch is a small update released by a software manufacturer to fix bugs in existing programs. Patching Patching is the process of updating software to a different version.
Payload Payload is the actual application data a packet contains. Penetration Gaining unauthorized logical access to sensitive data by circumventing a system's protections. Penetration Testing Penetration testing is used to test the external perimeter security of a network or facility.
Network Security Glossary
Permutation Permutation keeps the same letters but changes the position within a text to scramble the message. Personal Firewalls Personal firewalls are those firewalls that are installed and run on individual PCs. Almost all users use a URL like www. At the pseudo website, transactions can be mimicked and information like login credentials can be gathered.
With this the attacker can access the real www. Phishing The use of e-mails that appear to originate from a trusted source to trick a user into entering valid credentials at a fake website. Typically the e-mail and the web site looks like they are part of a bank the user is doing business with. Ping of Death An attack that sends an improperly large ICMP echo request packet a "ping" with the intent of overflowing the input buffers of the destination machine and causing it to crash.
Ping Sweep An attack that sends ICMP echo requests "pings" to a range of IP addresses, with the goal of finding hosts that can be probed for vulnerabilities.
Plaintext Ordinary readable text before being encrypted into ciphertext or after being decrypted. Point-to-Point Protocol PPP A protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol PPTP A protocol set of communication rules that allows corporations to extend their own corporate network through private "tunnels" over the public Internet.
Poison Reverse Split horizon with poisoned reverse more simply, poison reverse does include such routes in updates, but sets their metrics to infinity. In effect, advertising the fact that there routes are not reachable. Polyinstantiation Polyinstantiation is the ability of a database to maintain multiple records with the same key. It is used to prevent inference attacks.
Polymorphism Polymorphism is the process by which malicious software changes its underlying code to avoid detection. Port A port is nothing more than an integer that uniquely identifies an endpoint of a communication stream.
Only one process per machine can listen on the same port number. Port Scan A port scan is a series of messages sent by someone attempting to break into a computer to learn which computer network services, each associated with a "well-known" port number, the computer provides.
Port scanning, a favorite approach of computer cracker, gives the assailant an idea where to probe for weaknesses. Essentially, a port scan consists of sending a message to each port, one at a time.
What is Cyber Security? | Definition, Types, and User Protection | Kaspersky
The kind of response received indicates whether the port is used and can therefore be probed for weakness. Possession Possession is the holding, control, and ability to use information. Post Office Protocol, Version 3 POP3 An Internet Standard protocol by which a client workstation can dynamically access a mailbox on a server host to retrieve mail messages that the server has received and is holding for the client. Practical Extraction and Reporting Language Perl A script programming language that is similar in syntax to the C language and that includes a number of popular Unix facilities such as sed, awk, and tr.