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The Cuban system of harvesting sugar cane, characterized by mechanized cutting and cleaning, in more than regional centers, results in an annual harvest of the equivalent of , toe which were previously burned without any energy utilization.
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The characteristic of low density, common to bagasse and most of the solid fuels coming from biomass, set certain economical conditions for their use, such as to be near where they are produced, or to compact them, in order to make economical its transportation. Another important energy potential coming from biomass is the production of biogas. Its main sources are:. Preliminary calculations show that the total production that could be reached, based on the digestion of the above residuals, could represent a potential of over toe.
Recently the first industrial biogas plants went into operation in Cuba. This was built with a financial contribution from the Evangelical churches of Germany's Bread for the World, through the Cuban Ecumenical Council. At the same time, more small plants are being built to solve many local energy needs. At present, work is focusing on the cleaning of biogas and on the compression of the resulting methane, with the aim of diversifying its applications. The production of ethanol is presently limited to the production of alcohol for the liquor industry.
The fermentation of sugar juices constitutes a considerable energy potential, but this would enter into competition with existing sugar production. Wood and charcoal are traditionally used solid fuels. Annual wood production is around 2,5 million cubic meters.
Annual charcoal production, approximately 80 t. This is an acceptable level taking into account the rate of re-growth. It should be mentioned that from the beginning of the Cuban Revolution in , reforestation became an important task. It is however true that the sudden decrease in the availability of hydrocarbons put additional pressure on the use of wood and coal, mainly for cooking at social and domestic levels.
Although Cuba does not have large rivers, studies have shown that the potential for hydro energy in Cuba can reach the equivalent of , toe. In addition to the above, Cuba has a program for the development of Cuban-produced small scale hydro energy plants.
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Two hundred sites are already in operation and more are under consideration. The utilization of windmills for water pumping, mainly in the cattle sector, is a practice which, after a period of partial neglect, is being rescued and expanded. There are around windmills in Cuba and, even with present restrictions, the manufacture of 3 multi-blade types and a new model based on Colombian technology known as the 'gaviota' , has been reinititated at national level. It is estimated that by pumping water using windmills, 1.
The cuban wind potential has not been sufficiently studied from the perspective of electricity generation, but some zones have been detected that offer good possibilities, they are the northeast and north central, both influenced by Atlantic winds. The use of microgenerators coupled to small windmills, designed to charge batteries and electrify small zones, is seen as promising and work is underway on its development.
Another option is the combination of wind-photovoltaic systems. In Cuba there are nationally produced water solar-heating systems.
These are placed mainly in health, educational and social centers. Last year a new technological solution was developed in the field of solar application: plants to give solar treatment to sugar cane seeds. This is being extended into the sugar industry and has had excellent results so far in increasing the germinative capacity of seeds and in general crop health.
The project was cancelled after concluding that a best-case scenario for rapid advances in renewable energy could only result in emissions 55 percent below the fossil fuel projections for From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Nuclear energy policy. See also: Anti-nuclear movement in Austria.
Strategic Approaches to Cooperation
See also: Anti-nuclear movement in the Philippines. Main article: Nuclear power phase-out in Sweden. See also: Nuclear power in Switzerland and Anti-nuclear movement in Switzerland. See also: Anti-nuclear movement in Spain.see
Cuba's renewable energy development
See also: Anti-nuclear movement in Australia. See also: Anti-nuclear power movement in Japan. See also: Anti-nuclear movement in the United States. Main article: Nuclear power debate.
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Archived from the original on 25 March The Economist. Green Left. New York Times. Is the Nuclear Renaissance Fizzling? Green , 29 May Retrieved 14 August Taking stock of nuclear renaissance that never was Sydney Morning Herald , 18 August Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved Nuclear Task Force. Retrieved 11 September The New York Times. BBC News. Retrieved on World Nuclear News.
Retrieved 5 April Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 March Energy concept for an environmentally sound, reliable and affordable energy supply PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 6 October Retrieved 1 May October Retrieved 16 June Hamburg, Germany: Greenpeace Energy. Retrieved 8 September Berlin, Germany: Energy Brainpool. This reference provides a good overview of the phaseout.
Berlin, Germany. Retrieved 24 October Berlin, German. Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 6 December Karlsruhe, Germany: Bundesverfassungsgericht. Deutsche Welle DW.
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Bonn, Germany. Provides a history of the nuclear exit.