Wisely improve the Present.
It is thine. Go forth to meet the shadowy Future, without fear, and with a manly heart. This period was also one of experimentation in dramatic writing, although publication of The Spanish Student was delayed until A third trip to Europe followed in , when Longfellow took a brief leave of absence from professorial tasks to travel for his health. In Germany, Longfellow formed a close friendship with the poet Ferdinand Freiligrath, and in England he deepened an earlier acquaintance with Charles Dickens.
Inspired by social concerns raised by both writers, Longfellow devoted the voyage home to writing seven of the eight poems published on his return as Poems on Slavery Now that he had discovered his voice and his audience as a poet, Longfellow achieved personal happiness as well. In July he married Frances Appleton; her father presented the couple with Craigie House as his wedding gift.
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The marriage was an exceptionally happy one for both partners and brought Longfellow the domestic stability he had missed. When an eye injury that may have resulted from his intensive editing and translating efforts for the massive The Poets and Poetry of Europe interfered with his writing, she helped by reading aloud for him, copying out his poem drafts, and handling much of his correspondence.
Longfellow published two collections of verse by other poets, The Waif and The Estray , each preceded by an original poem relating to the poet and his audience.
Longfellow returned to this theme three years later in his last major prose composition, Kavanagh, A Tale Although the title character, the liberal-minded young minister of a rural New England church, is the central figure of a love triangle involving two close female friends, Cecilia Vaughan and Alice Archer, Longfellow probably took more interest in the schoolmaster, whose literary ambitions are continually frustrated by the press of teaching, fatherhood, and demands made on his time by an aspiring poetess.
The germ of the story reached Longfellow through the Reverend Horace L. Conolly, who had failed to interest his friend Hawthorne in developing the legend of Acadian lovers separated on their intended wedding day by an English edict displacing French Canadian settlers in order to establish Nova Scotia. Despite some criticism of the Virgilian dactylic hexameter meter with which Longfellow experimented in Evangeline , the poem proved enormously successful.
Longfellow completed his writing on his 40th birthday. The book appeared in late October and was in its 6th edition by mid January. Hundreds of editions, translations, and imitations followed, and Evangeline won admiration in Europe from which Longfellow drew some of his sources as well as the United States. It was probably the most celebrated American poem of the century. His father died in , his brother Stephen in , and his mother in In he resigned his Harvard professorship—partly because of his eyesight, partly for relief from academic pressures and contention with the university corporation on behalf of his department, but probably most of all because he found he could support his household on the strength of his poetry and desired more opportunity for writing.
Each new book extended his fame, and he was bombarded with invitations for literary contributions and for autographs. A sociable man known for his graciously winning manners, Longfellow took pleasure in associations with other literary figures through the Saturday Club, founded about for monthly dinner meetings, and the Atlantic Club, which brought together contributors to the Atlantic Monthly after its launching in He was engaged in ambitious projects. The Golden Legend , set in 13th-century Italy, was destined to become the middle section of the work he conceived as his masterpiece, Christus: A Mystery The poem was extensively reviewed, translated into German by Ferdinand Freiligrath in , and set to music as well as featured in dramatic performances.
Hiawatha introduces his tribe to agriculture through his encounter with the corn god Mondamin, to transportation by inventing the birch canoe, and to picture-writing. Through his friendship with Chibiabos the musician, he encourages the arts; by marrying a Dacotah maiden, he fosters intertribal peace.
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At the end of the poem, Hiawatha journeys westward alone after enjoining his people to welcome European missionaries with their new culture and Christian faith:. From the land of light and morning! The poem both exalts the Indian and assumes the obliteration of indigenous ways of life.
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For immediate publication, in three months beginning late in he composed the title poem for The Courtship of Miles Standish and Other Poems Her husband, who sustained severe burns to his hands, arms, and face in smothering the fire, was left with severe facial sensitivities that precluded shaving thereafter and forced him to grow the patriarchal white beard so familiar from later portraits; he was also left with heavy responsibilities for his family and with intense grief. While coping with private tragedy at home, he suffered the additional trauma of the Civil War.
That ordeal touched his family directly in late , when Charles Longfellow was wounded while fighting for the Union army; his father and brother made an anxious trip to Washington to escort the invalid home.
Again, Longfellow coped with sorrow by plunging himself into literary work—this time of an intensely challenging sort. A project already well in hand that he was able to bring to completion was Tales of a Wayside Inn , the first part of which appeared in This collection consisted of narrative poems composed in a great variety of metric patterns. Although many of the poems had been written and even published separately beforehand, they were loosely held together in this book by the fiction of an assemblage of friends entertaining each other by storytelling at a Sudbury, Massachusetts, inn.
A translation of this work had been among his goals when teaching Dante at Harvard, and he had translated small parts of the poem in the early s.
Imagined Places in European Literature
Now he plunged into work, translating at the rate of a canto a day. In these verse dramas set in Puritan Massachusetts, Longfellow attempted to bring forward his story into relatively modern times post-Reformation and into the new world, though Quaker persecutions and the Salem witchcraft frenzy may seem unlikely illustrations of Christian charity.
Longfellow himself may have recognized that the sections did not cohere and that the historical sequence ended in anticlimax; he thought of adding another drama on the Moravians of Bethlehem to show the positive influence of the Gospel, but he never carried out his intention. Volumes of selected poems emerged along with reprintings of earlier books and individual poems in varied formats and price ranges. Flower-de-Luce , a small book of twelve short poems, came out in with its elegy for Hawthorne and sonnets on Dante.
A revised edition of Hyperion followed in At least as wearing as his original authorship in late years was a massive editorial and translation project he undertook for his publisher, James T. Fields; Poems of Places emerged in 31 volumes between and Although sales of individual later volumes never matched the popularity of his mid-career offerings, Longfellow lived to experience recognition and rewards seldom enjoyed by other writers. Tributes of many kinds testified to public affection—visits to Craigie House by prominent literary and political figures and even the emperor of Brazil, public tributes, and escalating requests for autographs.
His final visit to Europe, on which he was attended by a large family party, turned into a triumphal progression framed by honorary degrees awarded by Cambridge and Oxford Universities. He also left a loving family and grateful readers who have continued to honor him by erecting statues and naming parks and schools for him, Evangeline, and Hiawatha. In poems throughout his career, he represented persons of all times, cultures, and states of life as turning to creative expression music, song, poetry, storytelling, and pottery for entertainment and reassurance.
In turn, he received homage from practitioners of other arts: composers set many of his poems to music, and artists illustrated many of his scenes.
The late 1950s and the ’60s
As he had honored European poets by translating their work into English, he lived to see his own poems translated into 24 languages. Longfellow laid the groundwork for other authorial careers by persuading readers of the importance of art as well as by demonstrating how literature could be turned into a paying proposition in a country known for material ambition.
The moralism of his poetry came to seem offensive and even ridiculous as critics attacked his mixed metaphors as evidence of muddled thinking. In many ways Longfellow may be read as a friend of American multiculturalism even if Hiawatha fails current tests of anthropological accuracy. His reputation could also benefit from renewed critical respect for sentimentalism, especially as that respect gets extended to male authors.
In order to understand Caribbean Coolitude poetics, one might review the local poetics to illuminate context. Coolitude uses Caribbean poetics — broadly created by and maintained by black intellectuals. In his book Caribbean Poetics: Toward and Aesthetic of West Indian Literature , Torres-Saillant posits that in order to understand the literature being produced in the Caribbean the reader must first understand that ideas of literature, literary theory, and language are not necessarily universal.
What he means is that the Caribbean must be understood in terms of its own history before any claims can be made about the literary merit of its writings. Moreover, the reader brings expectations to the text with that are contextually and culturally embedded. Using T.
He claims that beauty and aesthetics are culturally embedded and unevenly spread due to the effects of colonization. The work of understanding the various literary contexts falls upon the reader, who must understand the context for the aesthetics, as well as history and the bodies of knowledge that inform the literature. The literatures of the formerly colonized cannot be understood using the same frameworks of interpretation as Western, dominant literature because of the trajectories of these differing histories.
Torres-Saillant 17— One writer and poet who works within this framework is Edward Kamau Brathwaite, who speaks the language of Caliban. He searches for a language that will help show a Caribbean worldview and a speech for decolonization and liberation. According to Torres-Saillant, Brathwaite. His search entails the articulation of a native cosmology, a philosophy of history, and a regional aesthetic.sireqigica.tk
Torres-Saillant In this way Brathwaite, Lamming, etc. They are both able to rehumanize the dehumanized language of slaves; the always lesser-than dialect derided by colonial masters. Torres-Saillant posits that scholars of the Caribbean must counter the expectation of articulating why the Caribbean is an ontological whole space from which its literature can be understood. Long has European tradition held and maintained a unifying Imaginary that places them in one grand cultural zone with specific differences.
NL EN. More from Janice Hewlett Koelb. Description: P. Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references and index. Summary: 'The Poetics of Description 'tells a remarkable story that begins in classical antiquity with 'ekphrasis', the art of describing the world so vividly that the audience could become imaginative eyewitnesses, and continues when misunderstanding limited the concept to artistic descriptions.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, APA: Koelb, J.