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Nonlinear Waves and the Growth of a Tsunami

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Product Highlights Tsunami and Nonlinear Waves. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Tsunami and Nonlinear Waves Unimaginable catastrophe struck the coasts of Indian Ocean in the morning of January 26, , wiping out more than , human life at a stroke from the face of the earth.

It was the killer Tsunami, that originated its journey at the epicenter of the earthquake of intensity 9. All of us were shocked saddened and felt helpless, wanted to do so- thing in accordance to our own ability. I as a scientist working in India and interested in nonlinear dynamics, soliton and related phenomena, decided to contribute by organizinga dedicatede'ort by worldexpertsto study di'erent aspects of the Tsunami and other oceanic waves with special emphasis on the nonlinear connection of this problem.

Our Centre for Appl. CAMCS of our Institute, specially my colleague Prof Bikas Chakrabarti enthusiastically supported the idea and came along with the support of a generous fund. Specifications Publisher Springer. Customer Reviews. Write a review.

Random focusing of tsunami waves — Department of Nonlinear Dynamics & Network Dynamics Group

See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address. Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Scale effects are therefore expected to be insignificant and the figures in Fig. The measured wave periods of the maximum wave heights are 0. S1 corresponding to a period of up to However, mechanisms A, C and E would be predicted to result in a maximum wave height of up to The corresponding maximum period is The energy E w of the wave train passing the circle Fig.

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The energy E w accounts for 0. Bobbing and rocking motions of the block and water system, viscous energy dissipation, friction losses in the experimental set-up and block impact on the basin floor tend to consume most of the released energy E. The most efficient wave generator is the gravity-dominated fall mechanism B 4. The buoyancy-dominated overturning mechanism E is the most inefficient wave generator 0. The values for the naturally capsizing cases 2. The efficiencies for the gravity-dominated fall mechanisms 4. Icebergs interact with the surrounding water more efficiently than granular slides which dissipate energy due to internal and basal friction as well as the impact on the flume or basin floor.

Our present knowledge of iceberg-tsunamis relies mainly on field observations 7 , 14 , 15 , 17 , 19 , 21 , theoretical work 20 , 22 , 23 and small flume experiments In order to potentially transfer knowledge from the significantly further advanced landslide-tsunami research field, we link our results to subaerial landslide-tsunamis 25 , 26 , 28 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , In addition, the measured maximum wave heights are compared with empirical landslide-tsunami height prediction equations 30 , 36 in Fig.

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The slide impact velocity is represented by the maximum block velocity 0. However, they were conducted with granular slides impacting into a flume 30 with a similar geometry as the first section of the Helheim glacier fjord 21 and small-scale iceberg-tsunami experiments Granular rather than solid slides and a flume rather than a basin geometry are potential reasons for deviations between the measurements and the predictions in Fig.

Overall, the gravity-dominated mechanisms B and D are clearly better predicted by landslide-tsunami models 30 , 36 than the capsizing A and buoyancy-dominated mechanisms C and E. This was expected given that the physics of mechanisms A, C and E are very different from B, D and thus, subaerial landslide-tsunamis. Both methods 30 , 36 are valuable in the sense that they establish estimates of an upper envelope for the maximum iceberg-tsunami heights.

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Quantification of the maximum wave height as a function of the iceberg calving mechanism is important to protect coastal infrastructure and vessels navigating in proximity of glacier calving fronts. Our results reveal that iceberg-tsunamis generated by the gravity-dominated mechanisms B and D can be more than an order of magnitude larger than of capsizing or buoyancy-dominated processes for a given iceberg volume and geometry.

However, not considered in this comparison is the fact that icebergs may move in proximity of a critical location, e. Further, deviations of the idealised conditions investigated herein including the iceberg geometry, the water body geometry and the coastal geometry and bathymetry will also significantly affect the iceberg-tsunamis 23 , 25 , 34 , 37 , This motivated us to compare the measured maximum iceberg-tsunami heights with empirical equations based on landslide-tsunamis. Whilst the empirical equations of landslide-tsunamis 30 , 36 are able to provide estimates of an upper envelope for the maximum iceberg-tsunami heights, they fail to predict the behaviour of the capsizing A and buoyancy-dominated mechanisms C and E Fig.

Whilst knowledge from the significantly further advanced landslide-tsunami research field may help to give initial estimates for iceberg-tsunamis, particularly for mechanism B 15 , transferred knowledge from landslide-tsunamis cannot replace the requirement to further study iceberg-tsunamis. The blocks interacted with the surrounding water through five iceberg calving mechanisms A: capsizing, B: gravity-dominated fall, C: buoyancy-dominated fall, D: gravity-dominated overturning and E: buoyancy-dominated overturning.

The tsunami heights generated by mechanisms B and D gravity-dominated were roughly an order of magnitude larger than from mechanisms A, C and E. A theoretical model for the capsizing case was applied to the remaining mechanisms to compute the released iceberg energy, supporting that gravity-dominated iceberg calving generate the largest waves. However, only between 0. Results were upscaled to Greenlandic outlet glaciers and the wave periods agree well with field observations.

The iceberg-tsunamis were also predicted with empirical equations for landslide-tsunamis resulting in a good match for some gravity dominated cases and estimates of an upper envelope of the maximum iceberg-tsunami heights over all mechanisms. However, these equations fail to capture the physics of most iceberg-tsunami mechanisms such that the new research field of iceberg-tsunamis requires more attention.

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Random focusing of tsunami waves

Flow dynamics and iceberg calving rates of Devon ice cap, Nunavut, Canada. Enderlin, E. An improved mass budget for the Greenland ice sheet. Felikson, D. Inland thinning on the Greenland ice sheet controlled by outlet glacier geometry. Howat, I. Rapid changes in ice discharge from Greenland outlet glaciers.

Science , — Joughin, I. A SAR record of early 21st century change in Greenland. McMillan, M. A high-resolution record of Greenland mass balance. Large-scale changes in Greenland outlet glacier dynamics triggered at the terminus. Amundson, J. Multi-method observation and analysis of a tsunami caused by glacier calving. The Cryosphere 10 , — Dykes, R.

New Zeal. MacAyeal, D. Seismic observations of glaciogenic ocean waves micro-tsunamis on icebergs and ice shelves. Burton, J.

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Laboratory investigations of iceberg capsize dynamics, energy dissipation and tsunamigenesis. Marchenko, A. A tsunami wave recorded near a glacier front. Hazards Earth Syst. Massel, S. Surface wave generation due to glacier calving.