The Fish and Wildlife Management Act was put in place to urge farmers to plant food for wildlife and to provide cover for them. This law was an important advancement in the field of wildlife management. The funds generated were then distributed to the states for use in wildlife management activities and research.
This law is still in effect today. An important step in wildlife management in the United States national parks occurred after several years of public controversy regarding the forced reduction of the elk population in Yellowstone National Park. In , United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall appointed an advisory board to collect scientific data to inform future wildlife management.
In a paper known as the Leopold Report , the committee observed that culling programs at other national parks had been ineffective, and recommended active management of Yellowstone's elk population. Elk overpopulation in Yellowstone is thought by many wildlife biologists, such as Douglas Smith, to have been primarily caused by the extirpation of wolves from the park and surrounding environs. After wolves were removed, elk herds increased in population, reaching new highs during the mids.
The increased number of elk apparently resulted in overgrazing in parts of Yellowstone. Park officials decided that the elk herd should be managed. For approximately thirty years, the park elk herds were culled: Each year some were captured and shipped to other locations, a certain number were killed by park rangers, and hunters were allowed to take more elk that migrated outside the park.
By the late s the herd populations dropped to historic lows less than 4, for the Northern Range herd. This caused outrage among both conservationists and hunters. The park service stopped culling elk in The elk population then rebounded. Twenty years later there were 19, elk in the Northern Range herd, a historic high. Since the tumultuous s, when animal rights activists and environmentalists began to challenge some aspects of wildlife management, the profession has been overshadowed by the rise of conservation biology.
Urban Wildlife Management, Third Edition
Although wildlife managers remain central to the implementation of the Endangered Species Act and other wildlife conservation policies, conservation biologists have shifted the focus of conservation away from wildlife management's concern with the protection and restoration of single species and toward the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity. The control of wildlife through killing and hunting has been criticized by animal rights and animal welfare activists. Game keepers in the UK claim it to be necessary for wildlife conservation as the amount of countryside they look after exceeds by a factor of nine the amount in nature reserves and national parks.
Wildlife management studies, research and lobbying by interest groups help designate times of the year when certain wildlife species can be legally hunted, allowing for surplus animals to be removed.
In the United States, hunting season and bag limits are determined by guidelines set by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for migratory game such as waterfowl and other migratory gamebirds. The hunting season and bag limits for state regulated game species such as deer are usually determined by State game Commissions, which are made up of representatives from various interest groups, wildlife biologists, and researchers.
Open season is when wildlife is allowed to be hunted by law and is usually not during the breeding season. Hunters may be restricted by sex, age or class of animal, for instance there may be an open season for any male deer with 4 points or better on at least one side. Where the number of animals taken is to be tightly controlled, managers may have a type of lottery system called limited. Many apply, few are chosen. These hunts may still have age, sex or class restrictions. Closed season is when wildlife is protected from hunting and is usually during its breeding season.
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Closed season is enforced by law, any hunting during closed season is punishable by law and termed as illegal hunting or poaching. In wildlife management one of the conservation principles is that the weapon used for hunting should be the one that causes the least damage to the animal and is sufficiently effective so that it hits the target. Given State and Local laws, types of weapon can also vary depending on type, size, sex of game and also the geographical layout of that specific hunting area. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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