In preparation for Monday and Wednesday lectures, students were assigned a reading from the textbook customarily a chapter per week , which were meant to provide basic information with a certain breadth and depth as well as a narrative.
- Economics of Urban Externalities: Analysis of Squatter Settlements in Kathmandu and Quito;
- Introduction to cultures and religions for the study of AP Art History!
- A Cultural History of Law.
- The Santorini Marriage Bargain (Mills & Boon Modern) (Mills and Boon Modern)!
- Allen and Greenoughs New Latin Grammar.
The lectures were meant to highlight important issues and topics and to get students thinking in about the material, presenting a parallel and sometimes different narrative than the text. I also invited a colleague from the school of nursing, Lisa Wolffe, to give a lecture on her work with Inuit midwives in Alaska.
On Fridays the class met in small groups students maximum at different times of the day. The small group discussions provided an opportunity to ask questions about the readings and lectures and to analyze and discuss an additional reading - provided in a course pack - which was usually a primary source or article related to the weekly topic. Some of these primary sources presented the lives and views of ordinary people. Initially, I was a bit apprehensive about teaching a world history course as my undergraduate work at Calvin College and early graduate work at W.
The chronological framework for the yearlong A.
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P World History course thus seemed overwhelming, since it explores world history from prehistory to the present. Moreover, the course objectives appeared daunting. While thinking about the theoretical framework for developing a World History course that met these objectives, I approached James Palmitessa one day, asking if he could offer some advice, not knowing at the time that he had just developed the courses at W.
He offered to develop an independent study with me, entitled "Readings in World History," for the summer of After hearing about the strict A. At this point, he decided to leave the pedagogical concerns to me.
The readings focused on an introduction to the development of world history as a course of study, including works by Gilbert Allardyce and Jerry H. Bentley as well as the transcript of the American Historical Association Session. The theoretical framework provided by the readings course helped immensely in the development of the A.
Later, realizing that I needed more background in the histories of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas before I set out to teach the A. Thornton do not consider to be a watershed moment in world history. World History course subsequently developed at Holland Christian—but also offered a greater sense of the variety of sources that could be employed and referred to during the development and teaching of a world history course.
The A. World History course that developed for Holland Christian took a global approach to world history rather than a "world civilizations" approach. It followed the chronological framework laid out by the College Board which has subsequently been modified , beginning with a "foundations" period that explored the traditions of the deep past and moving to an analysis of the periods , , , and present. The course focused on the traditions and encounters between societies in the past in order to understand present global traditions and encounters.
The course followed the A. The course also explored systems of social structure and gender structure, cultural and intellectual developments and interactions among and within societies, and changes in the functions and structures of states. Despite the fact that my principal and some of the parents and students thought that I should teach directly to the A. The course invited active and critical listening, reading, viewing, thinking, discussing, reflecting, and writing, asking learners to both 'be' and 'do. For example, as the class explored the post-classical societies along the Silk Roads and the Indian Ocean Basin , students collected data in their notebooks to be used at a historic roundtable.
Students were placed in into four groups, each composed of four to five students. Each group was then responsible for teaching the other societies about themselves, their place in society, and the important aspects of their society. In order to explore the idea of ethnocentrism, each society was challenged to present their society as the most "civilized" of the post-classical societies. Individuals were then expected to read the assigned chapter from Traditions and Encounters , select a historical character, and do some extra research on their society and character at the local collegiate library.
Students were expected to present in character and bring at least one visual, such as a map, a depiction of their character, or an artifact, to share via a group PowerPoint. Students were also encouraged to note the bibliographies at the end of each chapter in Traditions and Encounters , in order to teach them about the important role bibliographies play in historical research. Each group was then given a class period in which to present. Such an approach not only successfully created a varied, interactive, and participatory classroom in which the students' contributions significantly shaped the learning, but also invited active and critical listening, reading, viewing, thinking, discussing, reflecting, and writing.
In short, lessons such as these invited learners to be and act as the students, teachers, and researchers that I believe they ought to be. The course also required students to complete periodic geography and reading quizzes on the Bentley text, which were done in pairs and in groups about half of the time, and to participate in class discussions.
Students were also required to research and compose a thesis essay on a particular topic of interest related to global encounters. Students kept a research journal and composed two scholarly book reviews.
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Students were also required to write a research proposal and preliminary bibliography as well as an outline and an introductory paragraph for the essay. A first draft with a conference leading towards the final draft of a thesis essay on their research topic was also required.
Students also took a mid-term exam that prepared them for the A. With fourteen students finally settling into the course, the course format at Holland Christian followed a reading-lecture-discussion-small group activities model, though the primary methods utilized were reading, small group activities, and discussion. The class met every day for 50 minutes.
Eventually, following a revolt by the students that will be discussed later, Mondays became reading days in which students would individually read from the Bentley text; Tuesdays through Thursdays were reserved for lectures, class discussion of the Bentley text, or small group activities dealing with primary sources; and Friday was reserved for reading, quizzes, or essay writing.
In preparation for Tuesday through Thursday lectures and discussions, students were assigned a chapter from the textbook on the preceding Friday. The small group discussions and activities provided an opportunity to ask questions about the readings and lectures and to analyze and discuss primary sources that were taken from the companion reader to the Bentley text, World Civilizations: Sources, Images, and Interpretation. Early Experiences Teaching the Course at W. Early concerns that it would take time for the W. U course to gain popularity were unfounded.ezuxaryner.tk
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The courses filled up to the maximum of the first semester and have filled every time since. Students came from all colleges in equal distribution.
Each semester fifteen to twenty history majors enrolled. Finding a coherent narrative and focus were challenges that surfaced early on. Despite the useful organizing principles of "tradition" and "encounter," which the textbook and lectures adhered to, some students were disoriented by what they experienced as constant switching between countries and periods.
On the other hand, an unexpected benefit of a global historical approach is that the relevance of the subject was apparent to me as well as the students, which is no longer the case with European history. That relevancy helped maintain the momentum of the course. Another benefit of world history is the freedom from the ideological paradigms that still plague the best Western Civilization textbooks.
Jerry Bentley's and Herbert Ziegler's Traditions and Encounters is one of the most straightforward, clearly written and informative textbooks in any field of history. The Holland Christian students, for example, commented that it was the finest textbook they had encountered during their young academic careers. Teaching the A. World History course for the first time was also a learning experience. Initial concerns that the course would not fill up to the required ten students or more were soon allayed as nineteen students signed up for the course.
In the opening days, students were overwhelmed by the amount of information to be covered and what appeared to them to be a syllabus that was too rigorous. As a result, four students dropped the course, concerned that the amount of A. However, as with James Palmitessa's course at the undergraduate level, the relevance of the subject matter quickly became apparent. Moreover, the students found the opportunities to conduct research very useful. Indeed, most of the students had not been in a research library with five floors of scholarly works, and so their eyes widened in amazement as they walked into the research library of the local liberal arts college.
Finding a book in such a library or locating a scholarly article or book review using databases such as JSTOR was new for many of them. Learning the process of historical research had begun. In the end, we were pleased with the results, as the composition of the research essay helped meet not only many of the course objectives, but also simultaneously prepared students for work at the undergraduate level as well as the A. Test scores on the A. In the school year, six out of the fourteen students who completed the course took the exam.
The remaining eight chose not to take the exam for a variety of reasons, including especially the cost. Four of the six students who did take the exam received a five, the highest mark a student can receive on the A. In the school year, six out of the seventeen students who completed the course took the exam. Three of those students received a five, two received a four, and one received a three. In short, all students who took the exam passed the exam, supporting my contention that an A. In fact, I believe students succeeded on the exam because they were introduced to scholarly works that explored topics of interaction and encounter in even greater depth than the Bentley text offered.
Thus, they learned how to interpret, evaluate, and analyze both scholarly and primary sources as well as how to construct and defend their own arguments. The testimony of my former students who are now enrolled in colleges and universities throughout the country seems to support this claim. One student in particular, who is presently pursuing undergraduate work at the University of Notre Dame, wrote to encourage me to continue challenging the students to develop their critical reading, writing, and thinking skills.